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Weather Resources Index

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Resources for Researching Past Weather

Sources of Information:

United States: (Climate Diagnostics Center). Contains data from 1895.
United States: (National Climatic Data Center). Contains monthly mean temperature and precipitation data that dates back to 1900: Time-Series trend data can be found here. The statistical climate information can be found here.
Monthly/Seasonal Climate Composites: (Climate Diagnostics Center). Allows one to generate maps that go back to 1948.
Monthly/Seasonal Climate Time Series (ESRL): Main Page and Select Variables ***
Image and Map Archives: Surface maps for 1871-Present.
Image and Map Archives: (Unisys Weather). Contains surface maps, infrared satellite images, and upper air charts from January 1996 onward.
Image and Map Archives: (Plymouth State Collection). Allows one to generate maps that go back as far as 1953.
3-Hourly Reanalysis: (Penn State University). January 1979 to the present.
6-Hourly Reanalysis: (Climate Diagnostics Center). Allows one to generate maps for 6-hour periods (0z, 6z, 12z, 18z) from 1948 to near the present.
Climate Correlations: (Climate Diagnostics Center). Generally correlations data from 1948 to the present. Tables for Monthly Correlations (Earth System Research Laboratory)
Climate Time Series: NOAA ESRL (ENSO, SOI, Other Indices 18th-21st centuries) ***
Daily Mean Composites: (Climate Diagnostics Center and Beta Site). 1991-2010 Means. Allows one to generate daily maps from 1948 to near the present. FTP Site for Adding Custom Data Files.
20th Century Reanalysis: (Monthly,  Daily Composites and 3/6 Hours). January 1871 to December 2010.
Global Circulation & Anomalies (Operational Data): ESRL
Surface and Upper Air Maps: (NOAA NSSL). Maps that go back as far as 1933.
Climate Indices: (Climate Diagnostics Center). A large number of monthly climate indices.
Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO): NOAA ESRL (1856-present)
Hurricane/Tropical Storm Archives: Hurricane History section of the Hurricane/Tropical Weather Resources page.
Northern Hemisphere Snow Coverage: (Rutgers University). Contains monthly and weekly data from November 1966 to the present (Downloads): Weekly Table and Monthly Table.
Monthly Snow Data: (Climate Prediction Center). From 1973 to the present.
Monthly Snow Data: (NOAA). Maps from 1886 to the present.
Snow and Ice Resources: (NOAA). Daily, monthly, and snow cover maps.
Precipitation Analysis: (National Weather Service). Data for up to 1 year.
ENSO Phase: (Climate Prediction Center). Contains a chart for seasonal data from 1950 to the present. Reconstructed general data from 1868 through 1998 (Florida State University).
ENSO SST Indices for ENSO Regions: (Climate Prediction Center). Contains a monthly chart for data from 1982 to the present. A weekly chart is also available.
ENSO SST Anomalies (Select Data): (UCARTNIR 1+2, and R 3.4. Contains data from 1871-Present. Reconstructed (From 1300 to near present). Historic ENSO Anomalies (hadISST) from 1870-Present: Regions 1+233.4, and 4 (ESRL)
Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO): (Climate Prediction Center). Contains data and a table from 1978 to the present. Also CPC Products.
Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO): (Australia Bureau of Meteorology). Latest phase and real-time data
Monthly Atmospheric, ENSO, and SST Indices: (Climate Prediction Center). Contains a wide range of historical data.
Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI): (Climate Diagnostics Center). Contains graphs and a table comparing ENSO phases from 1950 to the present and a historic table that goes back to 1871.
Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Index: (Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and the Ocean). NOAA Environmental Research Division (JISAO Methodology). From 1900 to the present. NCDC (from 1854-present).
Paleoclimatology: (NOAA). Contains a range of paleoclimate resources and data.
Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) Index: (Climate Diagnostics Center). Contains data for the QBO from 1948 to the present. 
Sea Surface Temperatures: (NOMADS). Contains global sea surface temperature readings from 1854 to the present. 
Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies: (Long Paddock). Contains global sea surface temperature anomalies from 1982 to the present. ESRL Plotting Tool (SSTA maps from 1856-Present) and ESRL Plotting Tool (SST maps from 1854-Present) ***
Solar Flux Data: (Climate Diagnostics Center). Contains data from 1948 to the present.
Southern Oscillation Index (SOI): (Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology). Contains monthly SOI data from 1876 to the present (table and graph).
Standardized Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Indices: (Climate Prediction Center). Contains the NAO, EA, EPO, WPO, PNA, and more in a table dating from 1950 to the present. Daily charts from July 1979 onward are also available. NAO from 1865 to Near Present.
Reconstructed Daily AO Index: (1871-2010)
Reconstructed NAO Index: (1500-2001). 
AAO, AO, NAO, and PNA: Daily text 
...1950-present: Daily Historical Text
EPO Daily Anomalies: PSL (1948-present)
WPO Daily Anomalies: PSL (1948-present)